A new study finds that ethanol blends reduce particulate matter (PM) coming out of the tailpipe, which in turn reduces overall toxic emissions. The study was conducted by the University of California Riverside and the University of Wisconsin, Madison and commissioned by the Urban Air Initiative. It was published in the journal Science of the Total Environment . The study assessed the gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM), from a flex fuel vehicle equipped with a wall-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine over triplicates cold-start and hot-start LA92 cycles. The vehicle was operated on a Tier 3 E10 fuel, an E10 fuel with higher levels of aromatics than the Tier 3 E10, an E30, and an E78 blend. Total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate emissions, and gaseous toxics (of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene) reduced […]