The euro-area economy plunged into an unprecedented slump in the second quarter, putting it in a deep hole from which it may take years to fully recover. Spain took the biggest hit, shrinking 18.5%, while French and Italian output also dropped by double digits. The 19-member region as a whole saw a 12.1% contraction. The declines in activity reflect the effect of strict quarantines measures on businesses and consumer spending, and a slump in tourism in some countries.

Virus Damage

Spain is Europe’s worst performer so far in second quarter

Source: National statistics offices, Bloomberg survey

The health crisis was most severe in the region’s least economically resilient members, leaving them with little firepower to support households and businesses. That forced European Union leaders to overcome longstanding differences on joint borrowing and agree an historic 750 billion-euro ($889 billion) rescue fund this month.

National governments have already stretched their budgets to deal with the crisis, and the European Central Bank launched a 1.35 trillion-euro bond emergency program to contain the economic shock.

“I don’t think anybody really realistically should think that levels of GDP by the end of 2021 will be back at the pre-crisis levels,” Erik Nielsen, UniCredit Group chief economist, told Bloomberg TV’s Francine Lacqua and Tom Keene. “Monetary policy will keep the pedal to the metal.”

The euro was trading at $1.1853 as of 11:54 a.m. in Frankfurt, little changed on the day. It had earlier risen above $1.19. The ECB’s actions have particularly targeted southern Europe after bond yields in Italy spiked early in the crisis because of investor worries that huge health spending could cripple the the country’s already-weak finances.

While the economy’s second-quarter slump was less than in Spain or France, it’s in a particularly vulnerable position because of its debt burden and sluggish long-term growth.

Overall, the rebound in Europe is under threat from a surge in new outbreaks that’s emerging across the globe. Governments are reluctant to impose strict national lockdowns, but economies could suffer anyway if fear of infection alters consumer behavior, stops people going to stores, bars and restaurants.

That puts countries such as Italy, Spain and Greece — all of which have huge tourism sectors — under the spotlight. Spain’s already bad summer season took a turn for the worse last weekend when the U.K. announced that holidaymakers returning from the country would have to quarantine because of an uptick in coronavirus cases in some regions.

What Bloomberg’s Economists’ Say…

“The big question is how far the recovery has to run. High-frequency indicators suggest the pace is now slowing and we expect a combination of ongoing social distancing rules, spending caution and weak external demand to act as a ceiling on activity for the rest of this year. And the main risk — a second wave of infections — looks closer to crystalizing.”

— Jamie Rush, chief European economist. Read his full REACT.

The other major risk is long-term damage to the labor market. Government support programs in Europe prevented unemployment from surging as it has in the U.S., but they may only be delaying rather than preventing devastating layoffs. With the outlook so uncertain, economists expect the ECB to increase its bond-purchase program again before the end of the year to revive growth and bring inflation closer to its target of just under 2%. Data Friday showed euro-zone consumer prices grew 0.4% in July.