As of September 2022, new cars must meet EU limits on NO x emissions under real driving conditions to comply with air pollution limits, the European Parliament has voted . Data on car emissions such as NO x had been obtained through laboratory tests. The EU is the first region in the world to use real driving emissions (RDE) tests to measure such pollutants emitted by vehicles while driven on the road. However, emissions from these vehicles in real-world driving conditions tend to be significantly higher. To address technical uncertainties regarding measurements obtained through Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS), which measure emissions from engines while they are being used, the Commission introduced the “conformity factor”, which allows for higher emissions under real driving conditions to take into account a margin of error. With these exemptions, cars were allowed to emit 2.1 times over the legal NO x limit of […]